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Animation Description: Bipolar Disorder encompasses a wide spectrum of symptoms and is classified according to the types of mood episodes exhibited, including: manic, hypomanic, major depressive and mixed episodes.
Bipolar I disorder involves a manic or mixed episode in contrast to Bipolar II disorder, which involves at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode, but no full manic or mixed episodes.
Bipolar Disorder should be differentiated from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), which is diagnosed when a patient experiences one or more major depressive episodes without any lifetime episodes of hypomania or mania.
Depicted here is a life chart (or mood chart), which follows the patient’s lifetime history of mood episodes. This permits the identification of mood episodes that are the most prevalent and important to prevent.
In this patient, as with many patients with bipolar disorder, depressive episodes become the more prominent aspect of the illness as the person ages.
Several morphometric differences have been observed in the brains of Bipolar Disorder patients relative to healthy subjects.
White matter hyperintensities and reduction in grey matter volume, identified with MRI, have been described in patients with Bipolar Disorder.
Increased ventricular size and decreased frontal cortical area volumes may also be observed in Bipolar Disorder patients.
The pathophysiology of Bipolar Disorder encompasses environmental, behavioural, neuronal, cellular, and molecular levels.
At the molecular level, aberrant signaling cascades alter synaptic plasticity. Strong evidence supporting the importance of second messenger signaling has come from studying the targets of mood stabilizing drugs such as lithium.
GSK-3 and IP3 signaling cascades are known to mediate axonogenesis, synaptogenesis, neuronal growth and cone spreading. Other downstream effects may also be involved.
The heritability of bipolar disorder is around 80%. Monozygotic twins are reported to have a higher incidence of developing Bipolar Disorder, approximately 40%, whereas the incidence is only 10% in dizygotic twins.
Although the process of developing bipolar disorder likely arises from complex interactions between genes and environmental factors, the specific genes that contribute to this risk are not known with certainty. Variations of several genes have been identified as potential contributors to the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder.
Among the identified genes are those associated with serotonin signaling (SLC6A4, TPH2), dopamine signaling (SLC6A3, DRD4), glutamate transmission (DAOA, DTNBP1), and cell maintenance and growth (NRG1, BDNF, DISC1).
The most significant environmental triggers of mood episodes among patients with bipolar disorder include use of drugs with mood-altering properties, changes in circadian rhythm, and life stressors.
Successful management of bipolar disorder requires particular attention to minimizing the effects of these influences.
It is also available on – wholly CME guideline resource dedicated to the needs of busy, practice-based physicians, which spans multiple therapeutic areas.
How to Deal With Anxiety Disorder Symptoms
How to Deal With Anxiety Disorder Symptoms
If you are concerned that you may have an anxiety disorder, you should know that there are several treatments available. These treatments are generally psychotherapy and medication. The best way to choose the right one for you depends on your specific symptoms. To help reduce anxiety, you should try to avoid caffeine and alcohol. Smoking also contributes to the symptoms. To quit smoking, you should consult a physician. Taking antidepressants may also help you manage anxiety.
Although self-help strategies can be helpful, it is better to seek professional help if your symptoms are severe or if they are interfering with daily life. Getting a thorough medical check-up will help rule out any other medical conditions that can contribute to anxiety. Certain drugs and recreational drugs can also cause anxiety. For these reasons, you should seek help immediately. Anxiety and heart disease are closely related, but they can be treated differently.
If you are experiencing any of the symptoms mentioned above, it is important to see a psychiatrist. This professional will help you understand the exact nature of your disorder. The therapist will be able to determine what caused your anxiety and devise a treatment plan to address your specific needs. If you are suffering from chronic anxiety or posttraumatic stress disorder, you should consult a psychologist or psychiatrist. Anxiety disorders are often hereditary and may run in families.
When you begin to experience symptoms of anxiety, stay calm. Rate the level of fear on a scale of one to ten. If the fear is high, you should not stay in that level for more than a few seconds. Similarly, if you experience a bout of anxiety, try to distract yourself with simple activities. Another effective way to manage anxiety is to exercise regularly. Regular aerobic exercise is an excellent stress buster. If you can, try a routine exercise, especially one with a rhythmical component, like running or swimming. Be sure to get enough rest as well.
While anxiety is a normal emotion and everyone experiences periods of stress, when it becomes excessive and uncontrollable, it may be a sign of a serious problem. If you’ve noticed these symptoms in yourself, talk to a doctor about it. Often, finding the right treatment can take time. You may need a combination of therapy and medication. Once you’ve found the right treatment, you’ll be on your way to managing your symptoms.
While anxiety is a normal response to danger, constant or excessive anxiety can lead to anxiety disorders. A healthy amount of anxiety helps us cope with threats and prevent dangerous situations. If it becomes excessive and impairs your daily life, it could be a sign of a disorder. Anxiety disorders can be treated, though, and your recovery will be faster and easier. You can get treatment for anxiety disorders today. If you’re worried that you’re suffering from an anxiety disorder, get a professional help. The sooner you start the treatment, the better off you’ll be.
If you’re worried about side effects and are uncomfortable taking antidepressants, you might try psychotherapy. While psychotherapy is a highly effective option for most patients, there are some medicines that are better suited to certain types of anxiety. Working with your health care provider will help you determine which medicine is best for you. You may even need to try several different types before you find the one that works best. A trained mental health professional will listen to your concerns and suggest ways to deal with them.